«

»

RADIO CAROLINE

Mi_Amigo_kleine

BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

Radio Caroline

This article is about the radio station. For the album by Miss Kittin, see Radio Caroline Vol.1.

Radio Caroline is a British radio station founded in 1964 by Ronan O’Rahilly to circumvent the record companies’ control of popular music broadcasting in the United Kingdom and the BBC’s radio broadcasting monopoly. Unlicensed by any government for most of its early life, it was a pirate radio station that became illegal in 1967.

The Radio Caroline name was used to broadcast from international waters, using five different ships owned by three different owners, from 1964 to 1990, and via satellite from 1998 to 2013. Radio Caroline currently broadcasts 24 hours a day via the Internet and by occasional Restricted Service Licence. Radio Caroline broadcasts music from the 1960s to contemporary, with an emphasis on album-oriented rock (AOR). The company also licenses other stations around the world to use the Radio Caroline name.

Radio Caroline was begun by Irish musician manager and businessman Ronan O’Rahilly. O’Rahilly failed to obtain airplay on Radio Luxembourg for Georgie Fame’s records because it was committed to sponsored programmes promoting major record labels; EMI, Decca, Pye and Philips.

Encouraged by Scandinavian and Dutch pirates, in February 1964 O’Rahilly obtained the 702-ton former Danish passenger ferry, Fredericia, which was converted into a radio ship at the Irish port of Greenore, owned by O’Rahilly’s father. At the same time, Allan Crawford’s Project Atlanta was equipping the MV Mi Amigo at Greenore, where the two competed to be first on air.

Financial backing for the venture came from six investors, including John Sheffield, chairman of Norcross, Carl “Jimmy” Ross of Ross Foods, Jocelyn Stevens of Queen magazine, with which Radio Caroline shared its first office. O’Rahilly named the station after Caroline Kennedy, daughter of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. On a fund-raising trip to the US, O’Rahilly reportedly saw a Life Magazine photograph of Kennedy and his children in the Oval Office that served as the inspiration for the name “Caroline Radio”. In an extant photo, Caroline Kennedy and her brother, John F. Kennedy Jr., are apparently dancing in the oval office as their father looks on, an activity which O’Rahilly reportedly interpreted as a playful disruption of government. Another reason for the name of the radio station was said to be after Ronan O’Rahilly’s onetime girlfriend Caroline Maudling, actress daughter of the then UK Chancellor of the Exchequer.

First transmissions

The Fredericia was renamed MV Caroline and anchored off Felixstowe, where it began test transmissions on Friday, 27 March 1964. On Saturday, 28 March, it began regular broadcasting at noon on 197 metres (1520 kHz, announced as 199 metres) with the opening conducted by Simon Dee. The first programme, which was pre-recorded, was hosted by Chris Moore. Radio Caroline’s first musical theme was Jimmy McGriff’s “Round Midnight”, a jazz standard co-composed by Thelonious Monk. In March 1964, The Fortunes recorded Caroline, which became the station’s theme. Round Midnight was confined to close down on Radio Caroline North after The World Tomorrow. The station’s slogan was Your all-day music station, and it initially broadcast from 6am-6pm, seven days a week.

Radio Caroline announced a wavelength of 199 metres, rhyming with the name, but was actually broadcasting on 197.3 metres (1520 kHz). Stations in the UK announced the wavelength in metres, and radios at that time were tuned using an analog dial. The absence of precise digital readouts allowed for some leeway between the precise transmission frequency and the channel announced on the air. The Dutch offshore station Radio Veronica was on 192 metres (1562 kHz). Radio Atlanta broadcast on 201 (1495 kHz).

Radio Caroline’s power was almost 20 kW, achieved by linking two 10 kW Continental Electronics transmitters. Broadcasting hours were 6am to 6pm to avoid competition from Radio Luxembourg. After its close-down, the station returned at 8pm and continued until after midnight. This was to avoid competition with popular television programmes. Most of Radio Caroline’s pop music programmes were targeted at housewives, and some later programming was aimed at children. Without serious competition, Radio Caroline gained a regular daytime audience of some 10 million.

Merger with Radio Atlanta

On 2 July 1964, Radio Atlanta and Radio Caroline’s companies, Project Atlanta and Planet Productions., announced the stations were to merge, with Crawford and O’Rahilly as joint managing directors. Radio Atlanta closed at 8pm that day. It was renamed Radio Caroline South and MV Mi Amigo remained off Frinton-on-Sea while MV Caroline broadcast as Radio Caroline North. MV Caroline sailed from Felixstowe to the Isle of Man, broadcasting as she went. The only broadcast staff on board were Tom Lodge and Jerry Leighton. MV Caroline arrived at her new anchorage on 13 July 1964. The two stations were able to cover most of the British Isles. Later, some programmes were pre-recorded on land and broadcast simultaneously from both ships.

In October 1965, O’Rahilly bought Crawford’s interest in the MV Mi Amigo and engaged Tom Lodge from Radio Caroline North to make programme changes and regain the audience from Radio London. Lodge hired new deejays and introduced free-form programming which, by August 1966, had succeeded, creating an audience of 23 million.

When the US-backed Radio London arrived off the coast of England, there was an unsuccessful attempt to merge its sales operation with that of Caroline before Radio London started transmissions. The new station introduced British audiences to slick American-style top 40 radio with “PAMS” electronic jingles – and was an immediate success.

Broadcasting personnel

Radio Caroline’s first programme, on 28 March 1964, was presented by Chris Moore. Presenters Tony Blackburn, Ray Teret, Roger Day, Simon Dee, Tony Prince, Spangles Muldoon, Keith Skues, Johnnie Walker, Robbie Dale, Dave Lee Travis, Tommy Vance, Paul Noble, Bob Stewart and Andy Archer became well known. Some DJs from the USA and Commonwealth countries, such as Graham Webb, Tom Lodge, Emperor Rosko, Steve Young, Keith Hampshire, Colin Nicol and Norman St John, were also heard. DJ Jack Spector, of the WMCA “Good Guys” in New York, regularly recorded for Radio Caroline. Syndicated shows from the US and recorded religious programmes were also broadcast. BBC Radio 2 newsreader Colin Berry and Classic FM’s Nick Bailey started their careers reading the news on Radio Caroline South.

In mid-September 1965, the crew and DJs on MV Mi Amigo were joined for the weekend by 1960s pop singer Sylvan Whittingham, who visited the ship to promote her single “We Don’t Belong”. Wittingham was unable to leave on the tender when a storm arose. The only singer to stay overnight, she helped present programmes, make jingles, and close the station at night.

On 20 January 1966, the MV Mi Amigo lost its anchor in a storm, drifted and ran aground on the beach at Frinton-on-Sea. The crew and broadcasting staff were rescued unharmed, but the ship’s hull was damaged and repairs were carried out at Zaandam, Netherlands. Between 31 January and 1 May, Radio Caroline South broadcast from the vessel Cheeta II, owned by Britt Wadner of Swedish offshore station Radio Syd, which was off the air because of pack ice in the Baltic Sea.[2] The Cheeta II was equipped for FM broadcasting, so it was fitted with the 10 kW transmitter from the Mi Amigo, feeding a makeshift antenna. The resulting signal was low-powered, but ensured that Caroline South’s advertising revenue would continue.

The Mi Amigo returned to its Frinton-on-Sea anchorage with a redesigned antenna and a new 50 kW transmitter and attempted to resume broadcasting on 18 April, nominally on 259 metres to enable the same jingles as Radio Caroline North on 1169 kHz to be used, but actually 252 metres. The transmitter was initially too powerful for the antenna insulators. On 27 April, the Mi Amigo was fully operational.

Radio Caroline South’s 259 metres signal was now near those of Radio London on 266m (1133 kHz) and the BBC’s Light Programme on 247m (1214 kHz). Radio Caroline North subsequently moved to 257m (1169 kHz) but also called it 259.

Radio City affair

In October 1965, Radio Caroline and Radio City began negotiations for Radio Caroline to take over Radio City, which broadcast from Shivering Sands Army Fort, a Second World War marine fort off the Kent coast. One of Radio Caroline’s directors, Major Oliver Smedley, formerly of Radio Atlanta, entered a partnership with Radio City’s owner, pop group manager Reginald Calvert and installed a more powerful transmitter on the fort. However, according to Gerry Bishop’s book Offshore Radio this transmitter was antiquated and failed to work. Smedley later withdrew from the deal.

On 20 June 1966, Smedley boarded the Shivering Sands Fort with ten workmen to repossess a transmitter that Smedley had supplied, but had not been paid for. The next day, Calvert visited Smedley’s home in Saffron Walden, Essex, to demand the departure of the raiders and the return of vital transmitter parts. During a violent struggle, Calvert was shot dead. Smedley’s men occupied the fort until 22 June.

Smedley was charged with Calvert’s murder on 18 July, but this was reduced to a charge of manslaughter. Smedley’s trial opened on 11 October at Chemlsford Assizes, where the jury acquitted him.

Legislation

In 1967, the UK Government enacted the Marine, &c., Broadcasting (Offences) Act 1967, outlawing advertising on or supplying an unlicensed offshore radio station from the UK. In an earlier House of Commons debate (in June 1966), the government had claimed that the pirate ships were a danger because of radio frequency interference to emergency shipping channels, and to overseas radio stations and the pirates were paying no royalties to artists, composers or record companies. Furthermore it was stated that the pirates’ use of wavelengths also broke international agreements. The Manx parliament, the Tynwald, attempted to exclude the North Ship from the legislation, appealing to the European Court on the legality of the act being applied to the Isle of Man. Two (Radio 270 and Radio London) of the remaining four UK based offshore stations closed, but the two Caroline ships continued with their supply operation moved to the Netherlands, which did not outlaw unlicensed ship based broadcasting until 1974.

When Marine &c. Broadcasting Offences Act become law on 14 August 1967, Radio Caroline was renamed Radio Caroline International. Six weeks later, the BBC introduced its new national pop station Radio 1, modelled largely on the successful offshore station Radio London, and employed many of the ex-pirate DJs. The BBC Light, Third, and Home programmes became Radios 2, 3 and 4 respectively.

On 3 March 1968, the radio ships, Mi Amigo and Caroline, were boarded and seized before the day’s broadcasting began. They were towed to Amsterdam by a salvage company to secure unpaid bills for servicing by the Dutch tender company, Wijsmuller Transport.

1970: Radio North Sea International

In 24 March 1970, a radio ship named Mebo II anchored off the east coast of England during the UK general election campaign, broadcasting as Radio North Sea International (RNI). RNI operated on mediumwave, shortwave and FM; its mediumwave transmission was jammed by the UK Labour government and on 13 June, RNI changed its name to Radio Caroline International with co-operation from Ronan O’Rahilly. Radio Caroline lobbied against the Labour Party, for the Conservative Party and for the introduction of licensed commercial radio in the United Kingdom. Following the election, RNI resumed its original name but jamming continued under the newly elected Conservative government. It was not until RNI returned to its original anchorage off the Netherlands that the jamming ceased.

Caroline Television

News stories appeared in Europe announcing the start of Caroline Television from two Super Constellation aircraft using Stratovision technology. One would circle over the North Sea in international air space near the United Kingdom, while the other remained on standby. Presentations were made to US advertising agencies. These stories continued and included co-operation by a former member of the Beatles and a sign-on date of 1 July; the station failed to appear.

It was later shown to be a publicity stunt.

1972-1980: Mi Amigo rescued

In 1972, MV Mi Amigo was bought for scrap at auction by enthusiast Gerald van Dam, who intended to use it as a free-radio museum. O’Rahilly promised financial backing if van Dam could return the ship to broadcasting condition.[16] The ship anchored off the Dutch coastal resort of Scheveningen and was serviced and operated from the Netherlands. It restarted as Radio 199 but became Radio Caroline with a Top 40 format. DJs Chris Carey, broadcasting as Spangles Muldoon (who was also station manager), Roger ‘Twiggy’ Day, Andy Archer, Paul Alexander, Steve England, Johnny Jason and Peter Chicago (real name Peter Murtha)[16] manned the station.

In late 1972, Radio Caroline had money problems. On 28 December, unpaid crew cut the Mi Amigo’s generator fuel line and departed. Later that day, the Dutch Royal Navy returned the crew and fighting broke out on board. Two days later, Mi Amigo was towed to IJmuiden and seized because of unpaid bills.[2] Because of the Christmas holidays, no solicitors were available to issue a writ and the ship lay in Amsterdam harbour until O’Rahilly arranged for it to be towed back to sea. The ship was further delayed by hull damage and repaired before writs could be issued.[16]

Between 11 and 20 April 1973, the ship broadcast for Radio Veronica while its ship, the Nordeney, was aground. Because of a law that allows pirates in distress to come ashore without arrest, the running aground had no consequences for the crew.[2] During summer 1973, it broadcast separate stations in English and Dutch simultaneously, on 773 and 1187 kHz. Two aerials and twin transmitters were used for about six weeks until the aerial mast failed. To accommodate the second aerial, a second short mast, just in front of the bridge, was employed as the other end for the main mast.[clarification needed]

Radio Atlantis and Radio Seagull[edit]

Main article: Radio Atlantis

Around this time, O’Rahilly decided Caroline should adopt an album format similar to “FM progressive rock” stations in the USA, for an audience not catered for in Europe. This service was Radio Seagull and broadcast live during the evening.

Since Radio Caroline could not find adequate advertising it shared its nominal 259 metre wavelength, actually 1187 kHz or 253 metres, with Dutch-language pop stations. The first was a Belgian station called Radio Atlantis, owned by Belgian businessman Adriaan van Landschoot. Programmes were recorded on land and broadcast between 6am and 7pm. Rough weather sometimes prevented tapes from arriving and old programmes had to be repeated. When its contract with Radio Caroline ended, the crew of Radio Atlantis moved to their own ship, the MV Janine.

Radio Seagull became Radio Caroline on 23 February 1974, retaining the album format. Throughout most of the 1970s, Radio Caroline could be heard only at night, calling itself “Europe’s first and only album station”.

Radio Mi Amigo

Another Belgian station, Radio Mi Amigo, launched on 1 January 1974. Radio Mi Amigo was run by Belgian businessman and Suzy Waffles owner Sylvain Tack. The station’s offices and studios were in Spain’s Playa De Aro Costa Brava, where they produced programmes for Dutch-speaking holidaymakers. Most of Radio Mi Amigo was recorded Europop, Top 40, MOR and Dutch language popular music presented by Belgian, Dutch and occasionally English DJs with frequent commercials. Because commercial radio was prohibited in Belgium, Radio Mi Amigo had little competition and became popular in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. For the first years, advertising on the station was in demand. When Radio Veronica closed in 1974, some presenters moved to Radio Mi Amigo.

Loving Awareness

Caroline’s album format meant that, although the station served a gap in the market, its audience was smaller than in the 1960s. Caroline also promoted O’Rahilly’s concept of Loving Awareness (LA), a far-eastern philosophy of love and peace. Some DJs were embarrassed but some were fascinated by the challenge of an abstract concept. Disc jockey Tony Allan developed a following, combining “Loving Awareness” with a professional style, humanity, knowledge of music and rich radio voice.

In 1974, O’Rahilly set up a pop group called The Loving Awareness Band, comprising John Turnbull (guitar) and Mick Gallagher (keyboards) both formerly of Skip Bifferty and two session musicians, Norman Watt-Roy (bass) and Charlie Charles (drums). In 1976, The Loving Awareness Band released their only album, Loving Awareness on More Love Records (ML001), a label set up by O’Rahilly. The album was reissued on CD more than once.

The band broke up in 1977, Watt-Roy and Charles played on Ian Dury’s New Boots and Panties!! album, and Turnbull and Gallagher joined them on the Stiff’s tour, becoming The Blockheads.

Dutch legislation

In 1974 the Dutch government banned unlicensed offshore radio on 1 September. Radio Caroline continued, moving its headquarters and servicing operation to Spain. Mi Amigo moved from the Dutch coast to the Knock Deep Channel, approximately 30 km from Britain. After 31 August, shows for Radio Mi Amigo were delivered on cassettes rather than reels of tape.

On 1 September, a small motor launch had difficulties in rough seas. Radio Caroline broadcast appeals for help, giving the ship’s position as

51°41′N 1°35′E

. A coastguard vessel escorted the launch back to shore, but the authorities were unhappy that Caroline listeners had jammed the emergency switchboards.

The Mi Amigo was tendered clandestinely from Britain, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Tenders and boat owners were warned, and some were prosecuted for ferrying staff and provisions to the ship. Belgium outlawed offshore radio in 1962 and prosecuted advertisers, cutting the station’s revenue. Belgian courts sentenced Tack and some DJs to fines and jail in absentia — although the prison terms were later cancelled.

Wavelength changes

The two stations experimented with different frequencies. After a short test on 773 kHz in late 1975, in May 1976, Radio Caroline began a daytime service on 1562 kHz (192 m) using a 10 kW transmitter, while its overnight service continued to share the 50 kW transmitter with Radio Mi Amigo’s daytime programming on 1187 kHz (253 metres, announced as 259).

In December 1976, Radio Mi Amigo moved to 1562 kHz on the 50 kW transmitter, leaving Caroline on 1187 kHz 24 hours a day on the 10 kW. Radio Caroline had greater night-time interference, and it was decided to move Caroline to a new frequency. On 3 March 1977, Caroline closed, announcing that it would return six days later on 319 metres. To allow Radio Mi Amigo to continue broadcasting by day, the engineering work for Caroline’s move had to be carried out over six nights, after the 50 kW transmitter was switched off.

Caroline returned on 9 March 1977 on 953 kHz, actually 315 metres but announced as 319. This gave reasonable reception by day but strong heterodyne interference at night because the transmitter crystal was off-channel. In July Caroline moved to the adjacent channel, 962 kHz (312 metres but still called 319) and reception in the UK improved. Meanwhile Radio Mi Amigo had interference on 1562 kHz and changed to 1412 kHz (212 m).

Finally, Radio Mi Amigo moved to 962 kHz on 1 December. Due to generator trouble, the two services could no longer be broadcast simultaneously, and Radio Caroline again broadcast at night with both stations using the 50 kW transmitter and Radio Caroline began to receive more mail from the continent. At times, a 10 kW transmitter was used to save fuel and relieve the generators. The 10 kW transmitters could run on the Henschel generator beside the two main MAN units and also a Cummings on the aft deck behind the wheelhouse.

In late 1977, Radio Caroline began sponsored evangelical programmes, and music programmes began at 9pm. On 20 October 1978, technical and financial problems put the Mi Amigo off the air. Unhappy at the loss of advertising, Radio Mi Amigo terminated its contract with Caroline in November 1978 and broadcast from its own ship, the MV Magdalena later that year, but this was short-lived. Broadcasting was in Dutch and English by day and in English at night, although for the first few months broadcasting finished at 10pm. On 19 January 1979, the aging ship took in water and alifeboat was called to evacuate the crew members. Radio Caroline returned to the air on 15 April 1979. The first record played was Fool (If You Think It’s Over), by Chris Rea, dedicated to the British Home Office. During this period each night transmission of Radio Caroline started with “Calling Occupants of Interplanetary Craft” of the progressive Rock Band Klaatu, issued in 1976 on their album 3:47 E.S.T.

Mi Amigo sinks

Main article: MV Mi Amigo

Just after midnight GMT on 20 March 1980, the Mi Amigo foundered in a storm after losing its anchor and drifting. It began taking in water and the crew were rescued by lifeboat. The generator was left running but the pumps could not manage and the Mi Amigo sank ten minutes later. Three British nationals, a Dutchman and their canary, named Wilson after the former Labour Prime Minister, Harold Wilson were rescued. The last broadcast from the Mi Amigo was by Stevie Gordon and Tom Anderson:

(Gordon): “Well, we’re sorry to tell you that due to the severe weather conditions and the fact that we are shipping quite a lot of water, we are closing down, and the crew are at this stage leaving the ship. Obviously, we hope to be back with you as soon as possible, but just for the moment we would like to say goodbye.” (Anderson): “It’s not a very good occasion really, we have to hurry this because the lifeboat is standing by. We’re not leaving and disappearing, we’re going onto the lifeboat hoping that the pumps can take it; if they can, we’ll be back, if not, well, we really don’t like to say it.” (Gordon): “I think we’ll be back in one way or another.” (Anderson): “Yeah. I think so.” (Gordon): “For the moment from all of us, goodbye and God bless.”

The crew of the Sheerness lifeboat Helen Turnbull were commended for the rescue of broadcasters Tom Anderson, Stevie Gordon, Nick Richards and Hans Verlaan from Mi Amigo while it was sinking in the Black Deep near Long Sand Bank. Having to manoeuvre the lifeboat alongside the stricken vessel 13 times in high seas and a north-easterly gale earned Coxswain Charles Bowry an RNLI silver medal. Each of his crew was awarded The Thanks of the Institution on vellum.

The Mi Amigo‍ ’​s 160-foot (49 m) mast remained erect for six years.

The station restarted in August 1983 from a new radio ship, the MV Ross Revenge, an ex-North Sea factory fishing trawler used during the Anglo-Icelandic Cod War by Ross Fisheries. It had an antenna system radiating from a 300-foot (91 m) high mast, the tallest on any ship in the world. It left Spain, with an incomplete studio, to avoid legal entanglements. Radio Caroline began from the ship on 19 August 1983, with unwanted mechanical sounds on speech. The station was opened by DJ Tom Anderson, who had said “goodbye” from the sinking Mi Amigo in 1980.

The Ross Revenge was larger than Mi Amigo and with more elaborate transmitting equipment: in 1983, two 5 kW RCA transmitters and a RCA 50 kW unit. One 5 kW transmitter was initially not serviceable. When Radio Monique hired the main transmitter, spare parts were taken from a fourth transmitter to convert the 5 kW into a 10 kW unit, the RCA 5 and 10 kW transmitters having similar designs. The remaining 5 kW transmitter was later converted for short wave use.

O’Rahilly wanted Radio Caroline to become an oldies station. He was opposed by some DJs and crew who had worked on the Mi Amigo and the album format stayed along with presenters such as Andy Archer, Samantha Dubois and Simon Barrett. Officially, Radio Caroline was managed from offices in North America, with advertising from the US and Canada. In practice, day-to-day servicing was carried from France and the UK.

From the anchorage in the Knock Deep the Mi Amigo’s mast could be seen on the horizon. Four studios were on board, enabling other services. Radio Caroline tried several frequencies, among them 963, 576, 585 (briefly), 558 (after Laser 558 closed) and later 819 kHz. European medium wave channels had been reallocated to multiples of nine. In the evenings on 963, some alternative music programmes were tried, including the reggae “Jamming 963”, and in 1986 and early 1987, a progressive and indie rock programme called Caroline Overdrive.

On 9 August 1985, an official vessel anchored 150 yards from the Ross Revenge. The UK [Department of Trade and Industry] (DTI) put a permanent watch on movements around the Ross Revenge and the MV Communicator, Laser 558’s ship. On 3 September 1985 at 24:00 hours the Dioptric Surveyor departed in a storm.

Radio Monique[edit]

Main article: Radio Monique

From December 1984 the Ross Revenge broadcast Radio Monique, recorded and live Dutch-language programmes of a Dutch music radio production company using the 50 kW transmitter during daytime. They were pop and Europop aimed at the mainstream Dutch audience. Radio Monique was popular throughout Benelux.

In the evenings, Radio Caroline transmitted Dutch and American religious evangelist broadcasters such as Johan Maasbach and Roy Masters on medium wave, and later on short wave, under the name Viewpoint 963/819, or World Mission Radio (WMR) on short wave.

In November 1985, the competing offshore station, Laser 558, closed after electrical problems and Caroline moved from 576 kHz to Laser’s 558 kHz frequency, with a Top 40 music format similar to Laser’s under the name Caroline 558. When Laser returned as Laser Hot Hits, it used Caroline’s former and inferior frequency of 576.

The mast collapses

In 1987, the Territorial Sea Act extended the UK maritime limit from three to twelve nautical miles (22 km). To remain in international waters, the ship moved to a new, less-sheltered anchorage. Initially this was a minor inconvenience as the 300-foot (91 m) mast was thought sturdy enough. However, in October a massive storm hit southern England, causing deaths and severe damage. MV Ross Revenge weathered the storm in the North Sea.

The following day, Caroline was one of few stations in the South East still broadcasting. However, the storm had weakened the mast, which collapsed in another storm later. Caroline returned to the air using a makeshift aerial with a less powerful signal. This was replaced by a twin-mast T-antenna. For several months only one transmitter could be used, leading to the loss of the income-generating Radio Monique, although a substitute Dutch daytime service, Radio 558 (later Radio 819), was eventually established.

Fast forward:

In December 2010, Chatham and Aylesford MP Tracey Crouch presented an Early Day Motion to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom calling for OFCOM to allow Radio Caroline to broadcast as a licensed medium wave station to its “traditional heartland of the south east”.

The full text of the EDM is:

That this House expresses its disappointment that, having pioneered commercial radio in the UK and for the past decade being a fully licensed broadcaster, Radio Caroline, a cornerstone of British radio history, has been denied by OFCOM the opportunity to secure a medium wave frequency from which to broadcast; regrets that as a result its devoted listeners are confined to listening to Radio Caroline via the internet and unable to enjoy its musical offerings in transit; and calls on OFCOM to exhaust all avenues in making the provisions available for Radio Caroline to celebrate its 50th birthday in 2014 by broadcasting on a medium wave frequency which, it appears, is unwanted by both BBC and commercial operators as a broadcast platform.”

LINKS: