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LP RECORD – PRODUCTION AND PRESSING – RECORDS

lp-record-8080234
BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS

Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 19, 1948 in two formats: 10 in (25 cm) in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm singles, and 12 in (30 cm) in diameter. The average LP has about 1,500 feet (about 469 metres) of groove on each side, or about a third of a mile.

Description: The long-playing record is an analog format.

Known For: Long-playing (LP) record albums are 33¨÷ rpm – Audio playback

Location: United States of America

CONTACT DETAILS
Web Site: http://www.picking.com/vitaphone-faq.html

Other Links: See below:

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BIOGRAPHICAL PROFILE

LP record – The producion and Pressing etc.

Long-playing (LP) record albums are 33 rpm, typically vinyl, gramophone records (phonograph records), generally either 10 or 12 inches in diameter.

They were introduced unsuccessfully by RCA in 1931 and successfully by Columbia in 1948, and served as a primary release format for recorded music until the compact disc began to significantly displace them by the beginning of 1990.

In the 21st century, a renewed interest in vinyl has occurred and the demand for the medium has been on a steady increase yearly in niche markets.

The long-playing record is an analog format.

Vitaphone:
The first prototype of the LP were the phonograph discs used in the Vitaphone sound motion picture process, developed by Western Electric and introduced in 1926.

The main differences from later LPs were that the stylus moved from the center of the Vitaphone disc outward, and a standard-width groove was used, similar to 78s, requiring a relatively heavy steel needle for recording and playback.

By 1930, all movie studios were recording on optical soundtracks, although they continued to distribute Vitaphone versions of their films to certain theaters as late as 1936.

From the mid-1920s until the adoption of magnetic tape recordings in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the radio industry used 16-inch and 12-inch discs, revolving usually at 33¡§¡À rpm.

These records were either aluminum core with lacquer, glass with lacquer (when there were aluminum shortages during World War II), or later, vinyl.

RCA Victor introduced an early version of a long-playing phonograph record in September 1931. The disc played at 33¡§¡À revolutions per minute, used almost double the number of grooves of a 78 rpm disc, could hold up to 15 minutes per side.

Columbia:
CBS Laboratories head research scientist Peter Goldmark led Columbia’s team to develop a phonograph record that would hold at least 20 minutes per side.

Columbia Records unveiled the LP at a press conference in the Waldorf Astoria on June 19, 1948 in two formats: 10 in (25 cm) in diameter, matching that of 78 rpm singles, and 12 in (30 cm) in diameter.

Ten-inch records would reappear as mini-albums in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative.

When initially introduced, 12-inch LPs played for a maximum of 45 minutes, divided over two sides. However, in 1952, Columbia Records began to bring out extended-play LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side.

Vinyl records are much more vulnerable to being scratched than CDs. On a record, a scratch can cause popping sounds with each revolution when the needle meets the scratch mark.

The average LP has about 1,500 feet (about 469 metres) of groove on each side, or about a third of a mile.

The tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately one mile per hour, on average. It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs.

This allows the lock groove effect used by The Beatles on Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, on which the last track, A Day in the Life, runs into a continuous loop, that will repeat as long as the record player is on.

The composition of vinyl used to press records has varied considerably over the years. Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the petrochemical crisis in the late 1970s, it became commonplace to use recycled vinyl, melted unsold records with all of the impurities.