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BRISBANE AUSTRALIA

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The City of Brisbane

Brisbane /ˈbrɪzbən/ is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane’s metropolitan area has a population of 2.3 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred on Brisbane, encompasses a population of more than 3 million. The Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres (9 miles) from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The metropolitan area extends in all directions along the floodplain of the Brisbane River valley between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range. The metropolitan area sprawls across several of Australia’s most populous local government areas, including the City of Brisbane, which is by far the most populous LGA in the nation. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite.
Brisbane is named after the Brisbane River on which it is located, which in turn was named after Scotsman Sir Thomas Brisbane, the Governor of New South Wales from 1821 to 1825. The first European settlement in Queensland was a penal colony at Redcliffe, 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of the central business district, which was founded in 1824. That settlement was soon abandoned and moved to North Quay in 1825. Free settlers were permitted from 1842. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales in 1859.
The city played a central role in the Allied campaign during World War II as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur. Brisbane has hosted several large cultural, international and sporting events, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo ’88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001, and the 2014 G-20 summit.

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Above: The Old Windmill in Wickham Park, built by convicts in 1828
Prior to European settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and Jagera people.[7] They knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning “place shaped as a spike”. The Moreton Bay area was initially explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, which he named “Red Cliff Point” after the red-coloured cliffs visible from the bay. In 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay.
Oxley discovered, named, and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna, 20 kilometres (12 mi) upstream from the Brisbane central business district. Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore. The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers (some with wives and children) and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay, 28 km (17 mi) south, which offered a more reliable water supply. Chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838. German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper (1813–1894) and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Niquet, Hartenstein, Zillman, Franz, Rode, Doege and Schneider. They were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station.
Free settlers entered the area over the following five years and by the end of 1840 Robert Dixon began work on the first plan of Brisbane Town, in anticipation of future development. Queensland was separated from New South Wales by Letters Patent dated 6 June 1859, proclaimed by Sir George Ferguson Bowen on 10 December 1859, whereupon he became Queensland’s first governor, with Brisbane chosen as its capital, although it was not incorporated as a city until 1902.
Twentieth century

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Above: Royal Australian Air Force recruits marching along Queen Street, August 1940

Over twenty small municipalities and shires were amalgamated in 1925 to form the City of Brisbane, governed by the Brisbane City Council. 1930 was a significant year for Brisbane with the completion of Brisbane City Hall, then the city’s tallest building and the Shrine of Remembrance, in ANZAC Square, which has become Brisbane’s main war memorial. These historic buildings, along with the Story Bridge which opened in 1940, are key landmarks that help define the architectural character of the city.
During World War II, Brisbane became central to the Allied campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central) was used as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur, chief of the Allied Pacific forces, until his headquarters were moved to Hollandia in August 1944. MacArthur had previously rejected use of the University of Queensland complex as his headquarters, as the distinctive bends in the river at St Lucia could have aided enemy bombers. Also used as a headquarters by the American troops during World War II was the T & G Building. About one million US troops passed through Australia during the war, as the primary co-ordination point for the South West Pacific. In 1942 Brisbane was the site of a violent clash between visiting US military personnel and Australian servicemen and civilians which resulted in one death and hundreds of injuries. This incident became known colloquially as the Battle of Brisbane.
Postwar Brisbane had developed a “big country town” stigma, an image the city’s politicians and marketers were very keen to remove.[24] In the late 1950s an anonymous poet known as The Brisbane Bard generated much attention on the city which helped shake this stigma. Despite steady growth, Brisbane’s development was punctuated by infrastructure problems. The State government under Joh Bjelke-Petersen began a major program of change and urban renewal, beginning with the central business district and inner suburbs. Trams in Brisbane were a popular mode of public transport until the network was closed in 1969, leaving Melbourne as the last Australian city to operate a tram network until recently.
The 1974 Brisbane flood was a major disaster which temporarily crippled the city. During this era, Brisbane grew and modernised rapidly becoming a destination of interstate migration. Some of Brisbane’s popular landmarks were lost, including the Bellevue Hotel in 1979 and Cloudland in 1982, demolished in controversial circumstances by the Deen Brothers demolition crew. Major public works included the Riverside Expressway, the Gateway Bridge, and later, the redevelopment of South Bank, starting with the Queensland Art Gallery.
Brisbane hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 1988 World Exposition (known locally as World Expo 88). These events were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction and development not previously seen in the state of Queensland. Brisbane’s population growth has exceeded the national average every year since 1990 at an average rate of around 2.2% per year.

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Above: A panorama view of the stage and Brisbane River during World Expo 88

Twenty-first century
After two decades of record population growth, Brisbane was hit again by a major flood in January 2011. The Brisbane River did not reach the same height as the previous 1974 flood but still caused extensive damage and disruption to the city.
Brisbane also gained further international recognition, hosting the final Goodwill Games in 2001, more games than any other city in the 2003 Rugby World Cup, and the 2014 G-20 summit.

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 Above: The night skyline of Brisbane’s central business district from Mount Coot-tha, May 2013

Geography

Brisbane is in the southeast corner of Queensland. The city is centred along the Brisbane River, and its eastern suburbs line the shores of Moreton Bay. The greater Brisbane region is on the coastal plain east of the Great Dividing Range. Brisbane’s metropolitan area sprawls along the Moreton Bay floodplain from Caboolture in the north to Beenleigh in the south, and across to Ipswich in the south west.
The city of Brisbane is hilly. The urban area, including the central business district, are partially elevated by spurs of the Herbert Taylor Range, such as the summit of Mount Coot-tha, reaching up to 300 metres (980 ft) and the smaller Enoggera Hill. Other prominent rises in Brisbane are Mount Gravatt and nearby Toohey Mountain. Mount Petrie at 170 m (560 ft) and the lower rises of Highgate Hill, Mount Ommaney, Stephens Mountain and Whites Hill are dotted across the city. Also, on the west, are the higher Mount Glorious, (680 m), and Mount Nebo (550 m).

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Above: Satellite image of Brisbane Metropolitan Area
The city is on a low-lying floodplain. Many suburban creeks criss-cross the city, increasing the risk of flooding. The city has suffered three major floods since colonisation, in February 1893, January 1974, and January 2011. The 1974 Brisbane Flood occurred partly as a result of “Cyclone Wanda”. Heavy rain had fallen continuously for three weeks before the Australia Day weekend flood (26–27 January 1974). The flood damaged many parts of the city, especially the suburbs of Oxley, Bulimba, Rocklea, Coorparoo, Toowong and New Farm. The City Botanic Gardens were inundated, leading to a new colony of mangroves forming in the City Reach of the Brisbane River.

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Above: The steel cantilever Story Bridge was constructed in 1940 to connect Fortitude Valley to Kangaroo Point. In the image on the right, the bridge is illuminated in blue for ovarian cancer awareness.

 Urban structure
The Brisbane central business district (CBD) lies in a curve of the Brisbane river. The CBD covers 2.2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) and is walkable. Central streets are named after members of the royal family. Queen Street is Brisbane’s traditional main street. Streets named after female members (Adelaide, Alice, Ann, Charlotte, Elizabeth, Margaret, Mary) run parallel to Queen Street and Queen Street Mall (named in honour of Queen Victoria) and at right angles to streets named after male members (Albert, Edward, George, William). The city has retained some heritage buildings dating back to the 1820s. The Old Windmill, in Wickham Park, built by convict labour in 1824, is the oldest surviving building in Brisbane. The Old Windmill was originally used for the grinding of grain and a punishment for the convicts who manually operated the grinding mill. The Old Windmill tower’s other significant claim to fame, largely ignored, is that the first television signals in the southern hemisphere were transmitted from it by experimenters in April 1934—long before TV commenced in most places. These experimental TV broadcasts continued until World War II. The Old Commissariat Store, on William Street, built by convict labour in 1828, was originally used partly as a grainhouse, has also been a hostel for immigrants and used for the storage of records. Built with Brisbane tuff from the nearby Kangaroo Point Cliffs and sandstone from a quarry near today’s Albion Park Racecourse, it is now the home of the Royal Historical Society of Brisbane. It contains a museum and can also be hired for small functions. The city has a density of 379.4 people per square kilometre, which is high for an Australian city and comparable to that of Sydney. However like many western cities, Brisbane sprawls into the greater metropolitan area. This results from the fact that most of Brisbane’s housing stock consists of detached houses.
Early legislation decreed a minimum size for residential blocks causing few terrace houses being constructed in Brisbane. Recently the density of the city and inner city neighbourhoods has increased with the construction of apartments, with the result that the population of the central business district has doubled over the last 5 years. The high density housing that historically existed came in the form of miniature Queenslander-style houses which resemble the much larger traditional styles but are sometimes only one quarter the size. These miniature Queenslanders are becoming scarce but can still be seen in the inner city suburbs. Multi residence accommodations (such as apartment blocks) are relatively new to Brisbane, with few such blocks built before 1970, other than in inner suburbs such as New Farm. Pre-1950 housing was often built in a distinctive architectural style known as a Queenslander, featuring timber construction with large verandahs and high ceilings. The relatively low cost of timber in South-East Queensland meant that until recently most residences were constructed of timber, rather than brick or stone. Many of these houses are elevated on stumps (also called “stilts”), that were originally timber, but are now frequently replaced by steel or concrete. Brisbane is home to several of Australia’s tallest buildings. Brisbane’s tallest buildings are Infinity at 249 metres, Soleil at 243 metres, Aurora Tower at 207 metres, Riparian Plaza at 200 metres and One One One Eagle Street at 195 metres. 222 Margaret Street at 274 metres and 1 William Street at 260 metres are currently under construction.

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Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot, humid summers and dry moderately warm winters. Due to its proximity to the Coral Sea and a warm ocean current, Brisbane’s overall temperature variability is somewhat less than most other Australian capitals, particularly in winter, when maximum temperatures below 20 C are relatively uncommon (compared with Sydney, Adelaide, and Perth). From November to March, thunderstorms are common over Brisbane, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hail stones, torrential rain and destructive winds. On an annual basis, Brisbane averages 124 clear days. Dewpoints in the summer average at around 20 °C (68.0 °F).

The city’s highest recorded temperature was 43.2 °C (110 °F) on 26 January 1940, but temperatures above 38 °C (100 °F) are uncommon. On 19 July 2007, Brisbane’s temperature fell below the freezing point for the first time since records began, registering −0.1 °C (32 °F) at the airport. In 2009 Brisbane recorded its hottest winter day at 35.4 °C (96 °F) on 24 August. Brisbane’s wettest day occurred on 21 January 1887, when 465 millimetres (18.3 in) of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of Australia’s capital cities.

From 2001 until 2010, Brisbane and surrounding temperate areas had been experiencing the most severe drought in over a century, with dam levels dropping to 16.9% of their capacity on 10 August 2007. Residents were mandated by local laws to observe level 6 water restrictions on gardening and other outdoor water usage. Per capita water usage is below 140 litres per day, giving Brisbane one of the lowest per capita usages of water of any developed city in the world. On 9 January 2011, an upper low crossed north of Brisbane and dropped rainfall on an already saturated southeast coast of Queensland, resulting in severe flooding and damage in Brisbane and the surrounding area;[50] the same storm season also caused the water storage to climb to over 98% of maximum capacity and broke the drought. Water restrictions have been replaced with water conservation measures that aim at a target of 200 litres per day/per person, but consumption is rarely over 160 litres. In November 2011, Brisbane saw 22 days with no recorded rainfall, which was the driest start to a November since 1919. Furthermore, August 2012 was the city’s driest August and the driest month ever experienced in its recorded history (records at the Brisbane Airport commenced in 1929, although the station closed in February 2000).[citation needed] At the meteorological station in the city’s downtown core (Brisbane Station), only 0.2 mm of precipitation was recorded in August 2012.

Brisbane has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot, humid summers and dry moderately warm winters. Due to its proximity to the Coral Sea and a warm ocean current, Brisbane’s overall temperature variability is somewhat less than most other Australian capitals, particularly in winter, when maximum temperatures below 20 C are relatively uncommon (compared with Sydney, Adelaide, and Perth). From November to March, thunderstorms are common over Brisbane, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hail stones, torrential rain and destructive winds. On an annual basis, Brisbane averages 124 clear days. Dewpoints in the summer average at around 20 °C (68.0 °F).

The city’s highest recorded temperature was 43.2 °C (110 °F) on 26 January 1940, but temperatures above 38 °C (100 °F) are uncommon. On 19 July 2007, Brisbane’s temperature fell below the freezing point for the first time since records began, registering −0.1 °C (32 °F) at the airport. In 2009 Brisbane recorded its hottest winter day at 35.4 °C (96 °F) on 24 August. Brisbane’s wettest day occurred on 21 January 1887, when 465 millimetres (18.3 in) of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of Australia’s capital cities.

From 2001 until 2010, Brisbane and surrounding temperate areas had been experiencing the most severe drought in over a century, with dam levels dropping to 16.9% of their capacity on 10 August 2007. Residents were mandated by local laws to observe level 6 water restrictions on gardening and other outdoor water usage. Per capita water usage is below 140 litres per day, giving Brisbane one of the lowest per capita usages of water of any developed city in the world. On 9 January 2011, an upper low crossed north of Brisbane and dropped rainfall on an already saturated southeast coast of Queensland, resulting in severe flooding and damage in Brisbane and the surrounding area;[50] the same storm season also caused the water storage to climb to over 98% of maximum capacity and broke the drought. Water restrictions have been replaced with water conservation measures that aim at a target of 200 litres per day/per person, but consumption is rarely over 160 litres. In November 2011, Brisbane saw 22 days with no recorded rainfall, which was the driest start to a November since 1919. Furthermore, August 2012 was the city’s driest August and the driest month ever experienced in its recorded history (records at the Brisbane Airport commenced in 1929, although the station closed in February 2000). At the meteorological station in the city’s downtown core (Brisbane Station), only 0.2 mm of precipitation was recorded in August 2012.

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Above: CityCat and City Ferry flotilla returns to the Brisbane River 14 February 2011, following the flood

Brisbane also lies in the Tropical Cyclone risk area, although cyclones are rare. The last to affect Brisbane but not directly cross the city was Tropical Cyclone Hamish in March 2009: it remained 350 km (220 mi) north of Brisbane but caused significant damage to beaches as well as the worst oil spill in Moreton Bay.[54] Average annual temperature of the sea is 24 °C (75 °F), from 21 °C (70 °F) in July to 27 °C (81 °F) in February. The city is susceptible to severe thunderstorms in the spring and summer months; on 16 November 2008 a severe storm caused tremendous damage in the outer suburbs, most notably The Gap. Roofs were torn off houses and hundreds of trees were felled. More recently, on 27 November 2014, a very strong storm made a direct hit on the city centre. Described as ‘the worst storm in a decade,’ very large hail smashed skyscraper windows while a flash flood tore through the CBD. Wind gusts of 141 km/h (88 mph) were recorded in some suburbs, many houses were severely damaged, cars were destroyed and planes were flipped at the Brisbane and Archerfield Airports. Dust storms in Brisbane are extremely rare; on 23 September 2009, however, a severe dust storm blanketed Brisbane, as well as other parts of eastern Australia

Unlike other Australian capital cities, a large portion of the greater metropolitan area, or Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA, formerly statistical division), of Brisbane is controlled by a single local government area, the City of Brisbane. Since the creation of the City of Brisbane in 1925 the urban areas of Brisbane have expanded considerably past the council boundaries. The City is by far the largest local government body (in terms of population and budget) in Australia, serving almost half the GCCSA’s population. It was formed by the merger of twenty smaller LGAs in 1925, and covers an area of 1,367 km2 (528 sq mi).

The Council’s annual budget is about AUD 1.6 billion, and it has an asset base of AUD 13 billion. The remainder of the metropolitan area falls into the LGAs of Logan City to the south, Moreton Bay Region in the northern suburbs, the City of Ipswich to the south west, Redland City to the south east on the bayside, with a small strip to the far west in the Scenic Rim Region. The current Lord Mayor of Brisbane is Graham Quirk of the Liberal National Party of Queensland.

Brisbane has seen consistent economic growth in recent years as a result of the resources boom. White-collar industries include information technology, financial services, higher education and public sector administration generally concentrated in and around the central business district and recently established office areas in the inner suburbs. Blue-collar industries, including petroleum refining, stevedoring, paper milling, metalworking and QR railway workshops, tend to be located on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River and in new industrial zones on the urban fringe. Tourism is an important part of the Brisbane economy, both in its own right and as a gateway to other areas of Queensland.

Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, the Queensland State Government has been developing technology and science industries in Queensland as a whole, and Brisbane in particular, as part of its “Smart State” initiative. The government has invested in several biotechnology and research facilities at several universities in Brisbane. The Institute for Molecular Bioscience at the University of Queensland (UQ) Saint Lucia Campus is a large CSIRO and Queensland state government initiative for research and innovation that is currently being emulated at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Campus at Kelvin Grove with the establishment of the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation (IHBI).

Brisbane is one of the major business hubs in Australia. Most major Australian companies, as well as numerous international companies, have contact offices in Brisbane, while numerous electronics businesses have distribution hubs in and around the city. DHL Global’s Oceanic distribution warehouse is located in Brisbane, as is Asia Pacific Aerospace’s headquarters. Home grown major companies include Suncorp-Metway Limited, Flight Centre, Sunsuper, Orrcon, Credit Union Australia, Boeing Australia, Donut King, Wotif.com, WebCentral, PIPE Networks, Krome Studios, Mincom Limited, TechnologyOne, Thiess Pty Ltd and Virgin Australia. Brisbane has the fourth highest median household income of the Australian capital cities at AUD 57,772.

Port of Brisbane

The Port of Brisbane is on the lower reaches of the Brisbane River and on Fisherman’s Island at the rivers mouth, and is the 3rd most important port in Australia for value of goods.[68] Container freight, sugar, grain, coal and bulk liquids are the major exports. Most of the port facilities are less than three decades old and some are built on reclaimed mangroves and wetlands.

The Port is a part of the Australia TradeCoast, the country’s fastest-growing economic development area. Geographically, Australia TradeCoast occupies a large swathe of land around the airport and port. Commercially, the area has attracted a mix of companies from throughout the Asia Pacific region.

Brisbane’s Greater Capital City Statistical Area includes the Local Government Areas of City of Brisbane, City of Ipswich, Moreton Bay Region, Logan City and Redland City which form a continuous metropolitan area. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates that the population of Greater Brisbane is 2,238,394 as of June 2013. The 2011 census reported 2,065,996 residents within the Brisbane GCCSA, making it the third largest city in Australia. Brisbane recorded the second highest growth rate of all capital cities since the previous Census, growing by 11.5%.

The 2011 census showed that 2% of Brisbane’s population were of indigenous origin and 29.7% were born overseas. Of those born outside of Australia, the three main countries of birth were the United Kingdom, New Zealand and India. About 17.9% of households spoke a language other than English, with the most common languages being Mandarin 1.5%, Vietnamese 0.9%, Cantonese 0.9%, Samoan 0.6% and Spanish 0.6%.

Areas with significant overseas-born populations predominate in the southern suburbs and inner Brisbane. By far the largest ethnic minority are Asian Australians. The area around Sunnybank, Sunnybank Hills, Stretton and Robertson is home to a large proportion of Brisbane’s Hong Kong and Taiwanese-born. Brisbane’s ethnic Chinese population has traditionally been dominated by those with origins in Taiwan and Hong Kong, still far more prevalent than in Sydney and Melbourne where Mainland Chinese are more numerous. Those with origins in China, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries are more spread around the metropolitan area. Brisbane has the highest population of Taiwanese Australian citizens of any city in Australia, with Sunnybank and its surrounding suburbs dubbed “Taiwan Town” and “Little Taipei”. Brisbane has the highest proportion of Korean Australians outside of Sydney. A significant proportion of Brisbane’s Vietnamese population reside in the suburbs of Darra and Inala. Moorooka is home to many residents of African descent. The inner southern suburbs were considered the most densely populated with people of Southern European heritage. New Farm was historically home to many of Brisbane’s early Italian community. There are also a large number of Indians, Filipinos, Pakistanis, German Australians, Papua New Guineans, Fijians and other Pacific Islander communities in the city.

Education

Brisbane has multi-campus universities and colleges including the University of Queensland (UQ), Queensland University of Technology (QUT) and Griffith University, all among Australia’s highest rated universities. Other universities which have campuses in Brisbane include the Australian Catholic University, Central Queensland University, James Cook University, University of Southern Queensland and the University of the Sunshine Coast. Brisbane is also home to the National Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts.

There are three major TAFE colleges in Brisbane; the Brisbane North Institute of TAFE, the Metropolitan South Institute of TAFE, and the Southbank Institute of TAFE. Brisbane is also home to numerous other independent tertiary providers, including the Australian College of Natural Medicine, the Brisbane College of Theology, QANTM, Jazz Music Institute, as well as Jschool: Journalism Education & Training, JMC Academy.

Many of Brisbane’s preschool, primary, and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of Education Queensland, a branch of the Queensland Government. There are also a large number of independent (private), Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other Christian run schools.

Brisbane is covered by Queensland Health’s “Northside” and “Southside” health service areas.Within the greater Brisbane area there are 8 major public hospitals, 4 major private hospitals, and smaller public and private facilities. Specialist and general medical practices are located in the CBD, and most suburbs and localities.

Sport

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Above:  Authour is jimmyharris Brisbane Broncos VS Canterbury Bulldogs Suncorp Stadium National Rugby League.

Brisbane has hosted several major sporting events including the 1982 Commonwealth Games and the 2001 Goodwill Games. The city also hosted events during the 1987 Rugby World Cup, 1992 Cricket World Cup, 2000 Sydney Olympics, the 2003 Rugby World Cup and hosted the Final of the 2008 Rugby League World Cup and will host along with the Gold Coast, some events for the 2018 Commonwealth Games. In 2005, then Premier Peter Beattie announced plans for Brisbane to bid to host the 2024 Olympic Games,[86] which in August 2008 received in principle Australian Olympic Committee support, including that of the former Queensland Premier Anna Bligh and former Brisbane Lord Mayor Campbell Newman. The most popular professional club in the city is the Brisbane Broncos, who play in the National Rugby League competition. Rugby Union is also very popular in Brisbane and the city hosts the Queensland Reds who play Super Rugby. Brisbane also hosts a professional soccer team named Brisbane Roar FC and an AFL club the Brisbane Lions.

The city’s major sporting venues include The Gabba, Sleeman Centre at Chandler, Suncorp Stadium (Lang Park), Ballymore Stadium and the stadium facilities of the Queensland Sport and Athletics Centre in Nathan. With the closure of the Milton Tennis grounds in 1994, Brisbane lacked a major tennis facility. In 2005, the State Government approved the State Tennis Centre a new A$65 million tennis stadium. The construction was completed in 2008. The Brisbane International is held here from January 2009.

Brisbane has teams in all major interstate competitions, excluding the National Basketball League.

Brisbane has teams in all major interstate competitions, excluding the National Basketball League.

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