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ADELAIDE SOUTH AUSTRALIA

BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS

city of adelaide south australia aerial

city of adelaide south australia aerial

The city of Adelaide

Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, in Australia and the fifth-largest city in Australia. In June 2014, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1.30 million. The demonym “Adelaidean” is used in reference to the city and its residents. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 90 km (56 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south.

Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide’s founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light’s design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parklands. Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth–up until the Second World War, it was Australia’s third largest city. Religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties led to the moniker “City of Churches”, which is still used today.

As South Australia’s seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, and its large defence and manufacturing sectors. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist’s World’s Most Liveable Cities index in 2010, 2011 and 2012.

Adelaide

It was also ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013.

Prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation (pronounced “Garner” or “Gowna”).

Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836. However, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture.

19th century

South Australia was officially proclaimed as a new British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North. The event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony’s capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. In 1823, Light had fondly written of the Sicilian city of Catania: “The two principal streets cross each other at right angles in the square in the direction of north and south and east and west. They are wide and spacious and about a mile long”, and this became the basis for the plan of Adelaide. Light chose, not without opposition, a site on rising ground close to the River Torrens, which was the chief water supply for the fledgling colony. “Light’s Vision”, as it has been termed, has meant that the initial design of Adelaide required little modification as the settlement grew and prospered.

Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, and realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield’s idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to ever afford their own land. As a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Hobart.

Adelaide-south-australia

As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light’s 1837 plan. However, by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought. Following a burglary, a murder, and two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force (now named South Australia Police) in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Mr Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, and on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, and in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide’s new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841.

Adelaide’s early history was wrought by economic uncertainty and incompetent leadership. The first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed frequently with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 (156 sq mi) of land. Adelaide’s early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. Light’s survey was completed in this period and land was promptly offered for sale to early colonists. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north.

Governor Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governor’s house, the Adelaide Gaol, police barracks, a hospital, a customs house and a wharf at Port Adelaide. In addition, houses for public officials and missionaries and outstations for police and surveyors were also constructed during Gawler’s governorship. Adelaide had also become economically self-sufficient during this period, but at heavy cost: as a result of Gawler’s public works the colony was heavily in debt and relied on bail-outs from London to stay afloat. Gawler was recalled and replaced by Governor Grey in 1841. Grey slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its impact was negligible at this point: silver was discovered in Glen Osmond that year, agriculture was well underway, and other mines sprung up all over the state, aiding Adelaide’s commercial development. The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in 1845, contrasting with a low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide houses were abandoned.

Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established with the Murray River being successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide resident. South Australia became a self-governing colony in 1856 with the ratification of a new constitution by the British parliament. Secret ballots were introduced, and a bicameral parliament was elected on 9 March 1857, by which time 109,917 people lived in the province.

In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the now turbid River Torrens. Gas street lighting was implemented in 1867, the University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, the South Australian Art Gallery opened in 1881 and the Happy Valley Reservoir opened in 1896. In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism. Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed. The national fertility rate fell and immigration was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia’s exports nearly halved. Drought and poor harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia. Adelaide was not as badly hit as the larger gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and silver and lead discoveries at Broken Hill provided some relief. Only one year of deficit was recorded, but the price paid was retrenchments and lean public spending. Wine and copper were the only industries not to suffer a downturn.

20th century

Electric street lighting was introduced in 1900 and electric trams were transporting passengers in 1909. 28,000 men were sent to fight in World War I. Adelaide enjoyed a post-war boom but, with the return of droughts, endured the Great Depression of the 1930s, later returning to prosperity under strong government leadership. Secondary industries helped reduce the state’s dependence on primary industries. World War II brought industrial stimulus and diversification to Adelaide under the Playford Government, which advocated Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to its less vulnerable location. Seventy thousand men and women enlisted and shipbuilding was expanded at the nearby port of Whyalla.

The South Australian Government in this period built on former wartime manufacturing industries. International manufacturers like General Motors Holden and Chrysler made use of these factories around Adelaide, completing its transformation from an agricultural service centre to a 20th-century city. A pipeline from Mannum brought River Murray water to Adelaide in 1954 and an airport opened at West Beach in 1955. An assisted migration scheme brought 215,000 immigrants of many nationalities, mainly European, to South Australia between 1947 and 1973. Flinders University and the Flinders Medical Centre were established in the 1960s at Bedford Park, south of the City.

The Dunstan Governments of the 1970s saw something of an Adelaide ‘cultural revival’, establishing a wide array of social reforms and overseeing the city becoming a centre of the arts, building upon the biennial “Adelaide Festival of Arts” which commenced in 1960. Adelaide hosted the Formula One Australian Grand Prix between 1985 and 1996 on a street circuit in the city’s east parklands; it then moved to Melbourne in 1996. The 1991 State Bank collapsed during the then economic recession, with its effects lasting until 2004, when ratings agency Standard & Poor’s reinstated South Australia’s AAA credit rating. Since 1999, the Clipsal 500 V8 Supercars race has made use of sections of the former Formula One circuit. Adelaide’s tallest building, built in 1988, was originally known as the State Bank Building. In 1991 it was renamed the Santos Building and in 2006 it was again renamed Westpac House.

21st century

In the early years of the 21st century there was a significant increase in the State Government’s spending on Adelaide’s infrastructure. The Rann Government invested $535 million in a major upgrade of the Adelaide Oval to enable AFL to be played in the city centre and more than $2 billion to build a new Royal Adelaide Hospital on land adjacent to the Adelaide Railway Station. The Glenelg tramline was extended through the city to Hindmarsh and the suburban railway line extended south to Seaford.

Following a period of stagnancy in the 1990s and 2000s, Adelaide has began several major developments and redevelopments. The Adelaide Convention Centre was redeveloped and expanded at a cost of $350 million beginning in 2012. Three historic buildings were adapted for modern use: the Torrens Building in Victoria Square as the Adelaide campus for Carnegie Mellon University, University College London and Torrens University; the Stock Exchange building as the Science Exchange of the Royal Institution Australia; and the Glenside Psychiatric Hospital as the Adelaide Studios of the SA Film Corporation. The government also invested more than $2 billion to build a desalination plant, powered by renewable energy, as an ‘insurance policy’ against droughts affecting Adelaide’s water supply. In the Arts the Adelaide Festival, Fringe and Womadelaide became annual events.

Geography

Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. The city stretches 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 90 km (56 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. According to the Regional Development Australia, an Australian government planning initiative, the “Adelaide Metropolitan Region” has a total land area of 870 km2 (340 sq mi), while a more expansive definition by the Australia Bureau of Statistics defines a “Greater Adelaide” statistical area totalling 3,257.7 km2 (1,257.8 sq mi). The city sits at an average elevation of 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. Mount Lofty, east of the Adelaide metropolitan region in the Adelaide Hills at an elevation of 727 metres (2,385 ft), is the tallest point of the city and in the state south of Burra.

Much of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement, with some variation – sandhills, swamps and marshlands were prevalent around the coast. The loss of the sandhills to urban development had a particularly destructive effect on the coastline due to erosion. Where practical, the government has implemented programs to rebuild and vegetate sandhills at several of Adelaide’s beachside suburbs. Much of the original vegetation has been cleared with what is left to be found in reserves such as the Cleland Conservation Park and Belair National Park. A number of creeks and rivers flow through the Adelaide region. The largest are the Torrens and Onkaparinga catchments. Adelaide relies on its many reservoirs for water supply with the Happy Valley Reservoir supplying around 40% and the much larger Mount Bold Reservoir 10% of Adelaide’s domestic requirements respectively.

Adelaide and its surrounding area is one of the most seismically active regions in Australia. On 1 March 1954 at 3:40 am Adelaide experienced its largest recorded earthquake to date, with the epicentre 12 km from the city centre at Darlington, and a reported magnitude of 5.6. There have been smaller earthquakes in 2010, 2011 and 2014.

Adelaide is a planned city, designed by the first surveyor-general of South Australia, Colonel William Light. His plan, now known as Light’s Vision, arranged Adelaide in a grid, with five squares in the Adelaide city centre and a ring of parks, known as the Adelaide Parklands, surrounding it. Light’s design was initially unpopular with the early settlers, as well as South Australia’s first governor, John Hindmarsh. Light persisted with his design against this initial opposition.

The benefits of Light’s design are numerous: Adelaide has had wide multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily navigable grid layout and a beautiful green ring around the city centre. There are two sets of ring roads in Adelaide that have resulted from the original design. The inner ring route (A21) borders the parklands, and the outer route (A3/A13/A16/A17) completely bypasses the inner city via (in clockwise order) Grand Junction Road, Hampstead Road, Ascot Avenue, Portrush Road, Cross Road and South Road.

Suburban expansion has to some extent outgrown Light’s original plan. Numerous former outlying villages and “country towns”, as well as the satellite city of Elizabeth, have been enveloped by its suburban sprawl. Expanding developments in the Adelaide Hills region led to the construction of the South Eastern Freeway to cope with growth, which has subsequently led to new developments and further improvements to that transport corridor. Similarly, the booming development in Adelaide’s South led to the construction of the Southern Expressway.

New roads are not the only transport infrastructure developed to cope with the urban growth. The O-Bahn Busway is an example of a unique solution to Tea Tree Gully’s transport woes in the 1980s. The development of the nearby suburb of Golden Grove in the late 1980s is an example of well-thought-out urban planning. The newer suburban areas as a whole, however, are not as integrated into the urban layout as much as older areas, and therefore place more stress on Adelaide’s transportation system – although not on a level comparable with Melbourne or Sydney.

In the 1960s, a Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study Plan was proposed in order to cater for the future growth of the city. The plan involved the construction of freeways, expressways and the upgrade of certain aspects of the public transport system. The then premier Steele Hall approved many parts of the plan and the government went as far as purchasing land for the project. The later Labor government elected under Don Dunstan shelved the plan, but allowed the purchased land to remain vacant, should the future need for freeways arise. In 1980, the Liberal party won government and premier David Tonkin committed his government to selling off the land acquired for the MATS plan, ensuring that even when needs changed, the construction of most MATS-proposed freeways would be impractical. Some parts of this land have been used for transport, (e.g. the O-Bahn Busway and Southern Expressway), while most has been progressively subdivided for residential use.

In 2008, the SA Government announced plans for a network of transport-oriented developments across the Adelaide metropolitan area and purchased a 10 hectare industrial site at Bowden for $52.5 million as the first of these developments.

Housing

Main article: Australian residential architectural styles

Historically, Adelaide’s suburban residential areas have been characterised by single-storey detached houses built on 1,000-square-metre (1⁄4-acre) blocks. A relative lack of suitable locally available timber for construction purposes led to the early development of a brick-making industry, as well as the use of stone, for houses and other buildings.

There is a wide variety in the styles of these predominately brick, and to a lesser degree, stone, and/or stone-faced, single-storey detached houses. After both of the World Wars, the use of red bricks was popular. In the 1960s, cream bricks became popular, and in the 1970s, deep red and brown bricks became popular. Until the 1970s, roofs tended to be clad with corrugated iron or clay tiles (usually red clay). Since then, cement tiles and colourbond corrugated (and other types of) iron have also become popular. Most roofs are pitched; flat roofs are not common. Up to the 1970s, the majority of houses were of “double brick” construction upon “dwarf wall” foundations. Progressively since then there has been a move to “brick veneer” over a timber frame on a concrete slab foundation, and more recently, over a steel frame. In addition to this, a significant factor in Adelaide’s suburban history is the role of the South Australian Housing Trust.

In the 1960s and 1970s, many of the older houses were demolished and replaced by “home units” – a group of three-to-five single-storey dwellings on a common title with shared access. Two-storey blocks of flats were also common in this period. Dutch Colonial architecture is rare in Adelaide, but there are a few noteworthy examples in the style popularised in the United States, in the 1960s. The style was brought to South Australia by George Gavin Lawson. In the 21st century, a significant factor is the government policy of “Urban infill”, where single-storey detached houses are being demolished, the land subdivided, and double-storey semi-detached “town-houses” are being built in their place.

Climate

Main article: Climate of Adelaide

Adelaide has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with hot dry summers and mild winters, with most precipitation falling in the winter months. Adelaide receives enough annual precipitation to avoid Köppen’s BSh (semi-arid climate) classification. Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout summer. In contrast, the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with June being the wettest month of the year, averaging around 80 mm. Frosts are occasional, with the most notable occurrences in July 1908 and July 1982. Hail is also common in winter. Snowfall in the metropolitan area is uncommon, except for very light falls at Mount Lofty and some places in the Adelaide Hills, with the most recent occurrence being on 1 August 2014 at Mount Lofty. Dewpoints in the summer typically range from 8C to 10C. The historical maxima and minima for Adelaide are 45.7 °C (114.3 °F) on 28 January 2009 and −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) on 8 June 1982.

A 2011[45] and 2013[46] report by the Climate Commission and the CSIRO highlighted that climate change and global warming is having a considerably detrimental effect on Adelaide. Highlighted risks were a stronger likelihood of large fires, coastal flooding, changing rainfall patterns and extended extreme heat periods. So far, the city has seen three of these proposed risks. Nine of Adelaide’s ten warmest years ever recorded have occurred in the last decade: from 2002 to 2014. Summer 2013-14 was the hottest summer on record, with a record number of 13 days exceeding 40 °C (104 °F), while Autumn 2014 was the warmest autumn ever recorded in Adelaide’s history. The following summer, in January 2015, bushfires burned out of control after days of extreme heat conditions in Sampson Flat, South Australia which then spread towards the outer northern suburbs of Adelaide, toward Greenwith and Golden Grove. The heatwave and fires caused widespread destruction, health problems and fatalities. The number of heat-related deaths in Adelaide is expected to more than double by 2030.

Adelaide is affected by the urban heat island effect in some areas which is caused by human activity (air-conditioning, traffic, vehicle emissions), altering temperatures compared to the surrounding rural areas and intensifying the heat in the inner-city region. The urban heat island phenomenon can cause temperatures to be 10 °C (18 °F) higher in the city than in surrounding areas. The urban heat island effect is increased as the demand for high-rise buildings in the CBD grows, because urban heat islands are often caused by the absorption of heat from tall buildings in concentrated areas. Additionally, the growth in Adelaide’s metropolitan area has also led to degradation of the environment as the urbanization has eradicated large spaces of natural vegetation. Various mitigation strategies have been proposed, including increasing urban green space across the city, constructing sustainable green design buildings and installing solar panels on city buildings.

A $1.2 million research initiative by the Urban Climates Research began in July 2013. The study aims to identify cost-effective strategies for mitigation of urban heat islands in Australian cities, with the primary goal of reducing heat stress in Australian cities.

Governance

Adelaide, as the capital of South Australia, is the seat of the Government of South Australia. As Adelaide is South Australia’s capital and most populous city, the State Government co-operates extensively with the City of Adelaide. In 2006, the Ministry for the City of Adelaide was created to facilitate the state government’s collaboration with the Adelaide City Council and the Lord Mayor to improve Adelaide’s image. The state parliament’s Capital City Committee is also involved in the governance of the City of Adelaide, being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide’s urban development and growth.

The Adelaide metropolitan area is divided between eighteen local government areas, including, at its centre, the City of Adelaide, which administers the Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide, and the surrounding Adelaide Parklands. It is the oldest municipal authority in Australia and was established in 1840, when Adelaide and Australia’s first mayor, James Hurtle Fisher, was elected. From 1919 onwards, the City has had a Lord Mayor, the current being Lord Mayor Martin Haese.

At the 2011 census, Adelaide had a metropolitan population of more than 1,225,235, making it Australia’s fifth largest city. In the 2002–03 period the population grew by 0.6%, while the national average was 1.2%. Some 76.7% of the population of South Australia are residents of the Adelaide metropolitan area, making South Australia one of the most centralised states.

Major areas of population growth in recent years have been in outer suburbs such as Mawson Lakes and Golden Grove. Adelaide’s inhabitants occupy 366,912 houses, 57,695 semi-detached, row terrace or town houses and 49,413 flats, units or apartments.

About one sixth (17.1%) of the population had university qualifications. The number of Adelaideans with vocational qualifications (such as tradespersons) fell from 62.1% of the labour force in the 1991 census to 52.4% in the 2001 census.

Overseas-born Adelaideans composed 29.8% of the total population. Suburbs including Newton, Payneham and Campbelltown in the east and Torrensville, West Lakes and Fulham to the west, have large Greek and Italian communities. The Italian consulate is located in the eastern suburb of Payneham. Large Vietnamese populations are settled in the north-western suburbs of Woodville, Kilkenny, Pennington, Mansfield Park and Athol Park and also Parafield Gardens and Pooraka in Adelaide’s north. Migrants from India and Sri Lanka have settled into inner suburban areas of Adelaide including the inner northern suburbs of Blair Athol, Kilburn and Enfield and the inner southern suburbs of Plympton, Park Holme and Kurralta Park.

Suburbs such as Para Hills, Salisbury, Ingle Farm and Blair Athol in the north and Findon, West Croydon and Seaton in the West are experiencing large migration from Afghanistan and Iran. Chinese migrants favour settling in the eastern and north eastern suburbs including Kensington Gardens, Greenacres, Modbury and Golden Grove. Mawson Lakes has a large international student population, due to its proximity to the University of South Australia campus. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from England (7.0%), Italy (1.6%), India (1.4%), China (1.3%) and Vietnam (1.0%). The most-spoken languages other than English were Italian (2.6%), Greek (1.9%), Mandarin (1.3%), Vietnamese (1.3%), and Cantonese (0.7%).

Age structure

Adelaide is ageing more rapidly than other Australian capital cities. More than a quarter (27.5%) of Adelaide’s population is aged 55 years or older, in comparison to the national average of 25.6%. Adelaide has the lowest number of children (under-15-year-olds), who comprised 17.7% of the population, compared to the national average of 19.3%.

Religion

Adelaide was founded on a vision of religious tolerance which attracted a wide variety of religious practitioners. This led to it being known as The City of Churches. However, approximately 28% of the population expressed no religious affiliation in the 2011 Census, compared with the national average of 22.3%, making Adelaide one of the least religious cities in Australia. Over half of the population of Adelaide identifies as Christian, with the largest denominations being Catholic (21.3%), Anglican (12.6%), Uniting Church (7.6%) and Eastern Orthodox (3.5%).

The Jewish community of the city dates back to 1840. 8 years later, 58 Jews lived in the city. The Jewish synagogue was built in 1871, when 435 Jews lived in the city. Many Jews took part in the city councils, such as Judah Moss Solomon (1852–66) and others after him. Three Jews have been elected to the position of city mayor. In the 1960s, the Jewish population of Adelaide numbered about 1,200; in 2001, according to the Australian census, 979 persons declared themselves to be Jewish by religion. In 2011, over 1,000 Jews were living in the city, operating an orthodox and a reform school, in addition to a virtual Jewish museum.

The “Afghan” community in Australia first became established in the 1860s when camels and their Pathan, Punjabi, Baluchi and Sindhi handlers began to be used to open up settlement in the arid interior of the continent. Until eventually superseded by the advent of the railways and later, motor vehicles, they played an invaluable economic and social role in transporting heavy loads of goods to, and products from, isolated settlements and mines. This role is acknowledged by the name of The Ghan, the passenger train operating between Adelaide, Alice Springs, and Darwin. The Central Adelaide Mosque is regarded as the oldest permanent mosque in Australia; however an earlier mosque at Marree in northern South Australia, dating from 1861–62 and subsequently abandoned or demolished, has now been rebuilt.

Economy

South Australia’s largest employment sector is health care and social assistance,[65][66] surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07. In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance.[65] Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment.

The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce.

Manufacturing, defence technology, high tech electronic systems and research, commodity export and corresponding service industries all play a role in the SA economy. Almost half of all cars produced in Australia are made in Adelaide at the General Motors Holden plant in Elizabeth. Adelaide has over 40% of Australia’s high-tech electronics industry which designs and produces electronic systems that are sold worldwide for applications in medical, communications, defence, automotive, food and wine processing and industrial sectors. The revenue of Adelaide’s electronics industry has grown at about 15% per annum since 1990, and in 2011 exceeds A$4 billion. The electronics industry in Adelaide employs over 12,000 people or 14% of all manufacturing employment.[citation needed] The South Australian economy, very closely tied to Adelaide’s, still enjoys a trade surplus and has higher per capita growth than Australia as a whole.

The collapse of the State Bank in 1992 resulted in large levels of state public debt (as much as A$4 billion). The collapse meant that successive governments enacted lean budgets, cutting spending, which was a setback to the further economic development of the city and state. The debt has more recently been reduced with the State Government once again receiving a AAA+ Credit Rating.

The global media conglomerate News Corporation was founded in, and until 2004 incorporated in, Adelaide and it is still considered its ‘spiritual’ home by Rupert Murdoch. Australia’s largest oil company, Santos, prominent South Australian brewery, Coopers, major national retailer Harris Scarfe and Australia’s second largest listed investment company Argo Investments Limited also call Adelaide their home.

Defence industry

Adelaide is home to a large proportion of Australia’s defence industries, which contribute over A$1 billion to South Australia’s Gross State Product. Seventy-two percent of Australian defence companies are in Adelaide.[citation needed] The principal government military research institution, the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, and other defence technology organisations such as BAE Systems Australia and Lockheed Martin Australia, are north of Salisbury and west of Elizabeth in an area now called “Edinburgh Parks”, adjacent to RAAF Base Edinburgh.

Others, such as Saab Systems and Raytheon, are in or near Technology Park. ASC Pty Ltd, based in the industrial suburb of Osborne. South Australia was charged with constructing Australia’s Collins class submarines and more recently the A$6 billion contract to construct the Royal Australian Navy’s new air-warfare destroyers.

Employment statistics

There are 466,829 employed people in Adelaide, with 62.3% full-time and 35.1% part-time. In recent years there has been a growing trend towards part-time (which includes casual) employment, increasing from 11.6% of the workplace in 1991, to over a third in 2011.

The median weekly individual income for people aged 15 years and over was $447 per week in 2006, compared with $466 nationally. The median family income was $1,137 per week, compared with $1,171 nationally. Adelaide’s housing and living costs are substantially lower than that of other Australian cities, with housing being notably cheaper. The median Adelaide house price is half that of Sydney and two-thirds that of Melbourne. The three-month trend unemployment rate to March 2007 was 6.2%. The Northern suburbs’ unemployment rate is disproportionately higher than the other regions of Adelaide at 8.3%, while the East and South are lower than the Adelaide average at 4.9% and 5.0% respectively.

House prices

Over the decade March 2001 – March 2010, Metropolitan Adelaide median house prices approximately tripled. (approx. 285% – approx. 11%p.a. compounding) In the 5 years March 2007 – March 2012, prices increased by approx. 27% – approx. 5%p.a. compounding.

Each quarter, The Alternative and Direct Investment Securities Association (ADISA) publishes a list of median house sale prices by suburb and Local Government Area. (Previously, this was done by REISA) Due to the small size of many of Adelaide’s suburbs, the low volumes of sales in these suburbs, and (over time) the huge variations in the numbers of sales in a suburb in a quarter, statistical analysis of “the most expensive suburb” is unreliable; the suburbs appearing in the “top 10 most expensive suburbs this quarter” list is constantly varying. Quarterly Reports for the last two years can be found on the REISA website.

Education and research

Education forms an increasingly important part of the city’s economy, with the South Australian Government and educational institutions attempting to position Adelaide as “Australia’s education hub” and marketing it as a “Learning City.” The number of international students studying in Adelaide has increased rapidly in recent years to 23,300 in 2008, of which 2,380 were secondary school students. In addition to the city’s existing institutions, foreign institutions have been attracted to set up campuses in order to increase its attractiveness as an education hub.

Primary and secondary education

At the level of primary and secondary education, there are two systems of school education. There is a public system operated by the South Australian Government and a private system of independent and Catholic schools. All schools provide education under the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) or, to a lesser extent, the International Baccalaureate (IB), with Adelaide having the highest number of IB schools in Australia.

Tertiary education

There are three public universities local to Adelaide, as well as one private university and three constituent colleges of foreign universities. The Flinders University of South Australia, the University of Adelaide, the University of South Australia and Torrens University Australia – part of the Laureate International Universities are based in Adelaide. Flinders, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia were ranked within the world’s top 400 universities in the Times Higher Education magazine in 2007.[83] Torrens University Australia is part of an international network of over 70 higher education institutions in more than 30 countries worldwide. The historic Torrens Building in Victoria Square[84] houses Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz College Australia, Cranfield University’s Defence College of Management and Technology, and University College London’s School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and constitute the city’s international university precinct.[85]

The University of Adelaide, with 25,000 students,[86] is Australia’s third-oldest university and a member of the leading “Group of Eight”. It has five campuses throughout the state, including two in the city-centre, and a campus in Singapore. The University of South Australia, with 37,000 students, has two North Terrace campuses, three other campuses in the metropolitan area and campuses at Whyalla and Mount Gambier. The Flinders University of South Australia, with 21,809 students,[88] is in the southern suburb of Bedford Park, alongside the Flinders Medical Centre, and maintains a small city campus in Victoria Square.

There are several South Australian TAFE (Technical and Further Education) campuses in the metropolitan area which provide a range of vocational education and training. The Adelaide College of the Arts, as a school of TAFE SA, provides nationally recognised training in visual and performing arts.

Research

In addition to the universities, Adelaide is home to a number of research institutes, including the Royal Institution of Australia, established in 2009 as a counterpart to the two-hundred-year-old Royal Institution of Great Britain. Many of the organisations involved in research tend to be geographically clustered throughout the Adelaide metropolitan area:
The east end of North Terrace: IMVS; Hanson Institute;[91] RAH; National Wine Centre.

The Waite Research Precinct: SARDI Head Office and Plant Research Centre; AWRI;[92] ACPFG; CSIRO research laboratories.[94] SARDI also have establishments at Glenside and West Beach.
Edinburgh, South Australia: DSTO; BAE Systems (Australia); Lockheed Martin Australia Electronic Systems.

Technology Park (Mawson Lakes): BAE Systems; Optus; Raytheon; Topcon; Lockheed Martin Australia Electronic Systems.
Research Park at Thebarton: businesses involved in materials engineering, biotechnology, environmental services, information technology, industrial design, laser/optics technology, health products, engineering services, radar systems, telecommunications and petroleum services.

Science Park (adjacent to Flinders University): Playford Capital.
The Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research in Woodville the research arm of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide.

The Mitchell Building and Bonython Hall, University of Adelaide.
The Hawke Building, part of the UniSA, City West Campus.
Flinders University buildings from the campus hills.
Torrens University.
TAFE City Campus.

Cultural

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